Professor Tina Irvine was a CRRES Visiting Scholar during the 2022-2023 year. Tina is an Assistant Professor in the Department of History at Purdue University. She is a social and cultural historian of the modern United States, with a particular interest in examining the shifting ideas about race and the boundaries of American citizenship in the long twentieth century. She received her Ph.D. in History from the University of Pennsylvania in 2019 and has taught in Indiana University's History Department and the Kelley School of Business since that time. As a 2022 ACLS Fellow, she is at work on her first book, Americanizing Appalachia: Mountain Reform and the Pursuit of a White American Identity, 1890-1933. This research explains how and why a tangled mix of educators, public health officials, white supremacists, and eugenicists placed mountain whites in their crosshairs in the early twentieth century. It analyzes mountain reform as part of the Americanization movement and as a response to concerns about a weakened color line to show how Americans came to see Appalachians’ reform as critical to a larger project of creating a homogenous white democracy. Although reformers were unable to decide if the region was a racial and civic reserve of pure-blooded Anglo-Saxons or a eugenically dangerous conglomerate of degenerate “white trash,” they collectively agreed that mountain whites’ social and cultural reform mattered– not only for the region’s, but for the nation’s, future.